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7 KEYS TO COMPREHENSION


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Create Mental  Images      

Determine the   Most Important Ideas or Themes
Use Background  Knowledge Synthesize Information
Ask Questions Use Fix-UpStrategies
Make Inferences Strategies taken from pp. 5-6, 7 Keys to Comprehension, Susan Zimmerman and Chryse Hutchins, 2003.

    
                   Visible Ingredients: Surface Structures   Invisible Ingredients: Deep Structures

1. Letter/Sound knowledge (phonics)
· Reading
· Recognizing sounds that go with letters
2. Word knowledge (lexical)
· Recognizing words without needing to “sound out”
· Identifying whole words rapidly
3. Structure of language (syntax)
· Hearing when sentences sound right and when they don’t
· Recognizing correct grammar and punctuation
4. Word meanings/associations (semantics)
· Understanding the meanings of words in different contexts
· Noting the shade of meaning in words and phrases
5.  Background knowledge (schema)
· Using background knowledge to enhance understanding
· Knowing whether there is a need to build background knowledge in order to understand
6.  Knowledge of audience/purpose (pragmatic)
· Understanding the purpose for specific reading
· Reading differently depending upon the purpose
Adapted from "Toward an Interactive Model of Reading": Strategies taken from p. 171, 7 Keys to Comprehension, Susan Zimmerman and Chryse Hutchins, 2003.
 
READING FIX-UP STRATEGIES
Reread Drawing Inferences Seeking Help Trying to get a Mental Image
Reading Ahead Making Predictions Stopping to Think Looking at Sentence Structure
Raising New Questions Figuring Out Unknown Words Connecting the Reading to Background Knowledge Inspecting Pictures and other Text Features
Reading the Author's Note Writing About the Confusing Parts Thinking About the Message Defining the Purpose for Reading

Strategies taken from p. 163, 7 Keys to Comprehension, Susan Zimmerman and Chryse Hutchins, 2003

Last Update 9/10